Country House Studies and the Museum
Country house studies in relation to the museum arguably commenced with The Destruction of the Country House 1875-1975 held at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1974. Described as a landmark exhibition, it was commissioned by then V & A Director Roy Strong and curated by John Harris (RIBA), Marcus Binney (Country Life), and Peter Thornton (V & A department of Furniture and Woodwork). The purpose of the event was to raise consciousness about the plight of country houses that had been demolished, or were in danger of being destroyed. The curators made use of the museum to design a “Hall of Destruction” with photos of lost country houses in an installation. The success of the exhibition led to the formation of the pressure group, “Save Britain’s Heritage” in 1975. The guide that accompanied the exhibition had contributions from a wide range of specialists like the then Surveyor of the Queen’s Pictures, Oliver Millar, and a number of aristocrats themselves. In a less pessimistic and more celebratory mode, the National Gallery of Art in Washington in 1985 recreated the look of country house surroundings in a modern museum, and as Giles Waterfield points out, occurred at a time when the collections of three great houses were threatened: Kedleston Hall, Calke Abbey, and Weston Park, disasters narrowly averted by financial life-saving from the National Heritage Memorial Fund. Though interest in the country house has been maintained via books, films and TV programmes such as Brideshead Revisited and more recently the soap opera du jour, the “Upstairs/Downstairs” of Downton Abbey, interest in studying the country house and collections by academics has waned, though there are significant exceptions.
|Hall of Lost Houses from the “Destruction of the Country House” exhibition, 1974.|
|Interior of Washington exhibition of Treasure Houses of England.|
|National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, London.|
Nicholas Penny relaxes in front of country-house red.
The National Gallery & the Heritage Hang.
Where the country house experience really impacts on the museum is in debates by leading magnifici of the last few hundred years on how their collections should be hung and displayed to the public. One of the directors of the National Gallery, Michael Levey proved to be very hostile to the Victorian architecture of the main floor galleries, seeking neutrality in display spaces in order to let the pictures speak for themselves, an approach championed by his predecessor Martin Davies. This approach was to be continued by later directors, who grew increasingly unhappy with the diversity of room styles. The most vocal of these was Neil MacGregor, a scion of the Scottish middle class, Anthony Blunt’s favourite student, and a lecturer at Reading. In the 1980s, appraising the hanging of pictures at the NG, a young Neil McGregor wryly observed:
“The Underground long ago overtook the weather as a source of London grousing. Both must soon be in danger of being outstripped by the National Gallery. The newly reopened French and Spanish rooms live sadly up to one’s expectations. What are those expectations? The early Italian room was some time ago rehung without being redecorated, so that the previous hanging can still be read in dust-marks on the wall, a palimpsest of past taste. The Pieros and Botticellis have for years had to fight for attention between turquoise cornice and tangerine carpet. The seventeenth-century Italian room contrives to look like a muddled country-house saloon, where a work of the quality of Annibale’s Pieta` jostles with the third-rate.”
As Samaurez-Smith points out, MacGregor’s ironic observations heralds a complete change from the minimalist display aesthetic towards a display similar to the look of pictures on walls of country houses in the 19th century. This was first pioneered by the Rubens scholar Michael Jaffé at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge in the 1970s. As we have seen Jaffé was familiar with country house displays like Kingston Lacy where the actual hangings were caught in paintings by Alec Cobbe. This was followed by Timothy Clifford with his refurbishment of the Manchester City Art Galleries in the mid and late 1970s, and subsequently the NG of Scotland at Edinburgh. This leads on to the current philosophy of hanging, the “heritage hang”, whose ideas were caught by the architecture historian Gavin Stamp writing in the Telegraph in 1986. “Despite the lessons about the treatment of historical interiors and the hanging of old paintings provided by galleries throughout the world, our academic experts have tried to treat works of art in isolation. Their ideal has been but one painting hung on a bare, colourless wall, ignoring the complementary power of fine architecture and rich colour. The result has been that so many of our museum interiors have been neutralised with dropped ceilings, hessian walls, incongruous display stands and gallons and gallons of white paint.”
|Interior of Fitzwilliam Museum, English pictures against country-house red.|
|Elizabeth Frink, Portrait of Michael Jaffé, 1992, bronze, patinated green, ht, 30 cm, (including base), Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.|
Alec Cobbe, The National Trust's Picture Hanging Committee (Bobby Gore, Sir Brinsley Ford, Professor Michael Jaffé and Tom Helme), Kingston Lacy, 1985, Acrylic on board, 30 x 29 cm, NT, Kingston Lacy.
|Interior of Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, Venetian paintings against country-house green.|
|Jacopo Palma il Vecchio, Venus and Cupid, c. 1523-24, oil on canvas, Oil on canvas, 118.1 x 208.9 cm, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.|
At Home with the Pictures.
Neil McGregor’s comparison of the seventeenth-century Italian room at the NG to the “country-house saloon” underlines how country house display lurked in the subconscious of the magnifici, which increasingly saw the country house design aesthetic as unsuitable for a modern picture gallery. In the Victorian era which saw huge crowds attending art galleries, pictures tended to be hung densely with hardly any space between them, much as pictures were hung in stately homes. This kind of “dense hang” was criticised by such cultural commissaries as Butler Wood, Director of an exhibition of English Art in the early twentieth-century. Seeking a new kind of display Butler Wood wished to “...show the works of art in some natural and harmonious arrangement with one another…The formalized and irritating effect of the prevailing method of picture exhibition is familiar. The typical picture gallery with its crowded unspaced paintings, whose exhibits crush and jostle with each other, is very much the counterpart of a mob.” Instead of conveying a crowded, ungovernable public space, curators wanted to give the impression of a less formal context: furniture and ceramics should be used to give collections “...the air of being at home in a somewhat natural combination.” Consequently, museums like the Fitzwilliam were transformed by its Director, Sydney Cockerell (appointed in 1908 until 1937) who knew about interior design as he was a friend of William Morris, John Ruskin and a number of artists. Thus Cockerell ensured that rooms were “decorated in cool colours with an emphasis on varied textures” (Waterfield) and he also displayed paintings with sculpture, and most daringly, rugs and sometimes even flowers. This made for a more, refined, elegant atmosphere though there would be a backlash against it, as encapsulated in Gavin Stamp’s comments above. Cockerell would also strengthen links between the public museum and the country house by staging exhibitions including works borrowed from the Royal Collection and Chatsworth.
Interior of Fitzwilliam showing pictures with furniture.
Interior of National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, Dutch pictures against country house red.
View of NT Beningbrough Hall, Yorkshire.
|John Joseph and John Joseph Bouttats, The North Front of Beningbrough Hall, 1751, Oil on canvas, 122 x 178 cm.|
Between the Modern Museum & the Country House.
A number of directors and curators like Timothy Clifford, as mentioned above, were interested in working with designers in order to change the viewing situation in the major museums. In his changes at the National Gallery of Scotland, Clifford was supported by the Chairman of Trustees, Jacob Rothschild who was interested in the design of galleries. Significantly, Rothschild was also friends with David Milnaric an interior decorator responsible for the refurbishment of Beningbrough Hall, Yorkshire, NT property, though not blessed with many paintings. A CSS says, this interest in bringing country house design into the museum coincided with the vast Treasures Houses of Britain, an exhibition staged in Washington in 1986, mentioned above. What is more, Milnaric had a taste for elegant, silk fabrics which was objected by McGregor who saw the design of the National Gallery in Edinburgh as consistent with “the picture-owning classes,” though to this occasional visitor to the Edinburgh NG, the red conveys equally institutional drabness as country house privilege. While not advocating brutalism in architecture and design, McGregor insisted on something more democratic and austere in the interests of conveying art directly to the museum-going public without the frills of ornate design obstructing the view. This debate about whether pictures should be shown amongst “clutter” rages today in the higher echelons of the National Trust spilling over into the popular press.
|Charles West Cope, R.A. The Council of the Royal Academy selecting Pictures for the Exhibition, 1876, oil on canvas, R.A., London.|
|Red Drawing Room, Belton House.|
|William Powell Frith, A Private View at the Royal Academy, 1881, oil on canvas, Private Collection.|
'The Advantages of the Practice of 'Athletic Exercises' by Young Painters, as recommended by a Great Critic', Punch cartoon, 25th May, 1861.
Anatomy of a Country House Collection: Belton House
Style- “Olden-Time” (Carolean style) 16th century
Families- Brownlow & Cust
Given to the NT in 1984
Belton House Owners.
· Sir John Brownlow I (1594–1679) Bequeathed Belton to his great-nephew John Brownlow II.
· Sir John Brownlow II (1659–1697). Builder of Belton House
· Sir William Brownlow (1665–1702). Brother of Sir John Brownlow II, permitted his widowed sister-in-law Alice to retain Belton.
· Sir John Brownlow III (1690–1754). Created Viscount Tyrconnel in 1718. Nephew and son-in-law of Sir John Brownlow II.
· Sir John Cust, 3rd Baronet (1718–1770). Speaker of the House of Commons and nephew of Tyrconnel.
· Sir Brownlow Cust (1744–1807). Created Baron Brownlow in 1776. Son of Sir John Cust.
· John, 2nd Baron Brownlow (1779–1853). Created 1st Earl Brownlow in 1815. Son of Sir Brownlow Cust.
· John Egerton-Cust, 2nd Earl Brownlow (1842–1867) Grandson of John, 2nd Baron Brownlow.
· Adelbert, 3rd (and last) Earl Brownlow (1844–1921). Brother of John, 2nd Earl Brownlow.
· Adelbert Salusbury Cockayne Cust, 5th Baron Brownlow (1867–1927). Second cousin of Adelbert, 3rd Earl Brownlow.
· Peregrine Cust, 6th Baron Brownlow (1899–1978). Son of the 5th Baron Brownlow.
· Edward Cust, 7th Baron Brownlow (born 1936). Son of the 6th Baron Brownlow.
· The National Trust (1984 onwards).
The house at Belton is considered to be the epitome of good, Carolean architecture, i.e seventeenth-century. Its history beings with the Brownlow family, a dynasty of lawyers who began acquiring property in the Belton area from about 1598. In 1609 they acquired the reversion of the manor from the Pakenham family who sold the manor house to Sir John Brownlow in 1619. He became attached to two of his more distant blood relations: a great-nephew, also called John Brownlow, and a great-niece, Alice Sherard. The two cousins married each other in 1676 when both were aged 16; three years later, the couple inherited the Brownlow estates from their great-uncle together with an income of £9,000 per annum (about £ 1.2 million in present day terms) and £20,000 in cash (equivalent to about £ 2.67 million now). Belton is faced with the local “ancaster stone” with lighter ashlar from Ketton. It is designed according to the Elizabethan H- shaped plan which placed rooms back to back, creating a house two rooms deep- the architectural term for this is double-pile. This also allowed rooms to be not just better lit and heated but also better accessed and related to each other, and with the greatest advantage of all—greater privacy. Belton does not follow the conventional design of an enfilade of state rooms, though it does have a large saloon at its centre in which are hung portraits of John and Alice. The reason for this architectural reticence may be class: the Brownlows were gentry, not aristocracy. Nevertheless, Belton was favoured with a visit from King William III 1695 where the monarch occupied “the best Bedchamber.”
|View of Belton House.|
|Att to Gerard Soest, Sir John Brownlow (1594–1679), 1st Bt of Belton, 'Old Sir John', 1644, oil on canvas, 68 x 60 cm, NT, Belton House.|
|Saloon, Belton House.|
|John Riley and John Closterman, Sir John Brownlow (1659–1697), 3rd Bt, 'Young Sir John', c. 1685, Oil on canvas, 250 x 152 cm, Saloon, Belton House.|
|John Riley and John Closterman, Alice Sherard (1659–1721), Lady Brownlow, c. 1685, Oil on canvas, 250 x 152 cm, Saloon, Belton House.|
The Belton Picture Collection in Context.
“Today country houses are still filled with treasures, they continue to display an abundance of precious objects, and often the narratives around them are more developed. But at the same time audiences seek other ways of understanding the country house, and art histories have yielded to social histories. The ‘treasure house’ has yielded to the ‘story house’, with visitors displaying a boundless appetite for information regarding the lives and activities of the occupants of owners and estates.”
The first thing that strikes one when encountering this collection is how nearly ¾ of it is comprised of paintings by English artists. Though one would expect to see a fair share of English art in country houses, nearly 200 out of 262 is quite substantial. After the English, way down the list comes the Italians with about 39, though their number is boosted by the inclusion of 16 pictures by the same artist, the neo-classicist Biagio Rebecca (1731-1808). Next comes the Dutch with about 19, but though this is meagre compared to the amplitude of the English holdings, it is apparent that this school has helped to give Belton something of its character. There is the Hondecoeter Room named after the Dutch bird painter which would be one of the main reasons for visiting the collection. The Flemish are in fourth place with about 13 paintings and behind them in single figures schools such Sweden, France, and Germany. Though the French contribution is very small, it includes a fine Boucher, surely one of the best in an English country house. Intriguingly, there seems to be no painting by a Spanish artist in the entire collection, a puzzling omission. Unsurprisingly, the artist most represented in the collection is Biagio Rebecca though again, the rule of inverse significance: all of these mythological panels are mediocre treatments of mythological deities and figures, arguably, one could happily remove them without damaging the collection. Next comes 33 pictures by unidentified English painters; this is a common factor to most country house collections. Sir Godfrey Kneller has no less than 17 pictures in this collection, though some are copies. After this the artists most present are Enoch Seeman the Younger, Gerard Soest, John Riley, Joshua Reynolds, Michael Dahl I, Willem Wissing (all six). Lastly John Closterman with five, though a number of these are collaborations with Riley. Though there are some “names” such as Reynolds, Rosa, Titian, Fra Bartolomeo, Rembrandt, most of these are copies. Unlike museums where the history of the institution is not explicitly relayed through the hangings and display, a country house collection needs to show the historical narrative, families, marriages, etc via the portraits. The NT display at Belton successfully blends the history of the owners of the house (see above) “present” in their portraits arranged in various rooms like the Saloon and the Tyrconnel Room with other more museum- like arrangements. For example, the Red Drawing Room has been made into something of a picture cabinet, almost impossible to achieve in a public museum, of small and medium size Italianate, Dutch and English pictures ranging from Holy Families to images of shipping all hung in bays which act as a “meta” frame to the actual pictures. As a colour contrast to the country house red of the Drawing Room, there is the tan brown and white of the main staircase which works well with the nineteenth-century portraits of the likes of Lord Leighton and Frank Salisbury. In this section an attempt has been made to interweave the “story house” with an art history methodology of explaining the pictures. Wether these two approaches can complement each other, or wether they remain staunch enemies, is just one of the issues that lie at the heart of how country house art collections should be presented to the visiting public.
|Main staircase, Belton House.|
|Frederick Lord Leighton, Lady Adelaide Chetwynd-Talbot (1844–1917), Countess Brownlow, c. 1879, oil on canvas, Oil on canvas, 244 x 166 cm, main staircase, Belton House.|
|Frank O. Salisbury, Lady Adelaide Chetwynd-Talbot (1844–1917), Countess Brownlow, 1908, Oil on canvas, 205 x 166 cm, main staircase, Belton House.|
|Melchior de Hondecoeter, View of a Park with Swans and Ducks, 1670-80, Oil on canvas, 362 x 294 cm, Belton House.|
|Abraham Govaerts, A Nymph and Satyr, Oil on panel, 79 x 94 cm, Red Drawing Room, Belton House.|
|Dutch School, Shipping Scene, 1696, Oil on canvas, 49.5 x 64 cm, Red Drawing Room, Belton House.|
François Boucher, 'La vie champêtre,' 1728, Oil on canvas, 60 x 50 cm, Belton House.
1) Hall of Lost Houses from the “Destruction of the Country House” exhibition, 1974.
2) Interior of Washington exhibition of Treasure Houses of England.
3) National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, London.
4) Nicholas Penny relaxes in front of country-house red.
5) Elizabeth Frink, Portrait of Michael Jaffé, 1992, bronze, patinated green, ht, 30 cm, (including base), Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.
6) Alec Cobbe, The National Trust's Picture Hanging Committee (Bobby Gore, Sir Brinsley Ford, Professor Michael Jaffé and Tom Helme), Kingston Lacy, 1985, Acrylic on board, 30 x 29 cm, NT, Kingston Lacy.
7) Charles West Cope, R.A. The Council of the Royal Academy selecting Pictures for the Exhibition, 1876, oil on canvas, R.A., London.
8) Joseph Wright of Derby, Portrait of Richard, 7th Viscount Fitzwilliam, 1764, oil on canvas, 74.9 x 62.2 cm, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.
9) Interior of Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, Venetian paintings against country-house green.
10) Jacopo Palma il Vecchio, Venus and Cupid, c. 1523-24, oil on canvas, Oil on canvas, 118.1 x 208.9 cm, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.
11) Interior of Fitzwilliam Museum, English pictures against country-house red.
12) Interior of Fitzwilliam showing pictures with furniture.
13) Interior of National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, Dutch pictures against country house red.
14) View of NT Beningbrough Hall, Yorkshire.
15) John Joseph and John Joseph Bouttats, The North Front of Beningbrough Hall, 1751, Oil on canvas, 122 x 178 cm.
16) William Powell Frith, A Private View at the Royal Academy, 1881, oil on canvas, Private Collection.
17) 'The Advantages of the Practice of 'Athletic Exercises' by Young Painters, as recommended by a Great Critic', Punch cartoon, 25th May, 1861.
18) View of Belton House.
19) North Face of Belton House.
20) English School, View of the South Aspect of Belton House, Lincolnshire, with the House Porter, c. 1720, Oil on canvas, 237 x 313 cm.
21) William Skillman (fl.1660-1685) engraving of Clarendon House (dem. 1683), London, from painting by Johann Spilberg II (1619-1690).
22) Att to Gerard Soest, Sir John Brownlow (1594–1679), 1st Bt of Belton, 'Old Sir John', 1644, oil on canvas, 68 x 60 cm, NT, Belton House.
23) English School, Sir John Brownlow (1659–1697), 3rd Bt, 'Young Sir John' (?), oil on canvas, 73.5 x 61 cm, NT, Belton House.
24) John Riley and John Closterman, Alice Sherard (1659–1721), Lady Brownlow, c. 1685, Oil on canvas, 250 x 152 cm, Saloon, Belton House.
25) Saloon, Belton House.
26) John Riley and John Closterman, Sir John Brownlow (1659–1697), 3rd Bt, 'Young Sir John', c. 1685, Oil on canvas, 250 x 152 cm, Saloon, Belton House.
27) Diagram of piano nobile of Belton House: Key 1: Marble Hall; 2:Great Staircase; 3:Bedchamber, now Blue Room; 4:Sweetmeat closet; 5:Back stairs & east entrance; 6:Chapel Drawing Room; 7:Chapel (double height); 8:Tyrconnel Room; 9:Saloon; 10:Red Drawing Room; 11:Little Parlour (now Tapestry Room); 12:School Room; 13:Closet; 14:Back stairs & west entrance; 15:Service Room (now Breakfast Room); 16:Upper storey of kitchen, (now Hondecoeter Room).
28) Style of William Wissing, William III (1650–1702), Oil on canvas, 73.5 x 62 cm, Belton House.
29) Tyrconnel Room, Belton House.
30) Charles Jervas, Sir John Brownlow (1690–1754), 1st Viscount Tyrconnel, 1730s, Oil on canvas, 244 x 142 cm, Tyrconnel Room, Belton House.
31) Phillipe Mercier, The Belton Conversation Piece, c. 1725-26, Oil on canvas, 65 x 75.5 cm
32) Main staircase, Belton House.
33) Frank O. Salisbury, Lady Adelaide Chetwynd-Talbot (1844–1917), Countess Brownlow, 1908, Oil on canvas, 205 x 166 cm, main staircase, Belton House.
34) Frederick Lord Leighton, Lady Adelaide Chetwynd-Talbot (1844–1917), Countess Brownlow, c. 1879, oil on canvas, Oil on canvas, 244 x 166 cm, main staircase, Belton House.
35) Red Drawing Room, Belton House.
36) Att to Fra Bartolommeo, Madonna & Child, Oil on canvas, 72 x 61 cm, oil on canvas, Red Drawing Room, Belton House.
37) Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari, The Adoration of the Magi, after 1682, Oil on canvas, 89 x 79 cm, Red Drawing Room, Belton House.
38) After Rembrandt van Rhyn, 1632, A Portrait of a Jew, Oil on panel, 69 x 59 cm, Red Drawing Room, Belton House.
39) Abraham Govaerts, A Nymph and Satyr, Oil on panel, 79 x 94 cm, Red Drawing Room, Belton House.
40) Dutch School, Shipping Scene, 1696, Oil on canvas, 49.5 x 64 cm, Red Drawing Room, Belton House.
41) François Boucher, 'La vie champêtre,' 1728, Oil on canvas, 60 x 50 cm, Belton House.
42) After Titian, The Penitent Magdalen, late 16th-17th century, Oil on canvas, 92 x 84 cm, Belton House.
43) Hondecoeter Room.
44) Melchior de Hondecoeter, Open Landscape with Poultry and Waterfowl1660-80, Oil on canvas, 362 x 540 cm, Hondecoeter Room, Belton House.
45) Same with Dead Swan by Weenix.
46) Melchior de Hondecoeter, View of a Park with Swans and Ducks, 1670-80, Oil on canvas, 362 x 294 cm, Belton House.
47) Silver in the Hondecoeter Room.
48) Edmund Fairfax-Lucy, Silver Gilt in the Hondecoeter Room, Belton House, Lincolnshire, 1987, Oil on canvas, 45.5 x 66 cm, Belton House.
49) Attributed to Nicolaes Berchem, Figures & Animals, rect acq by Belton House.
 About 800 properties were open to the public at the time this exhibition was held.
 Giles Waterfield, “Studying the Country House: The View from the Academy,” paper given at the Attingham Trust conference, “Looking Ahead: The Future of the Country House,” Royal Geographical Society, London, 12-13th Oct, 2012. The Attingham Trust was founded in 1952, and in the words of another conference participant, Christopher Ridgway, curator at Castle Howard, “Attingham was not founded with any specific preservation mission in the way that organizations like SAVE were launched by Marcus Binney in 1975. Attingham’s main mission in 1952 was to enable curators to ‘become acquainted with the fabric and contents of British country houses.’”
 Martin Davies believed that pictures could “speak” independently of their surroundings. Davies wanted less “window dressing”, more minimalism and a philosophy of letting the pictures have free rein. Davies’s successor, the 18th century expert Michael Levey, would equally strive for clarity, although he would be more mindful of the public than Davies. Levey wrote a guide to the museum, a chronological itinerary mapped out for the visitor. After ascending the stairs to the main entrance, the visitor went into Room 1, dealing with the “Italian Gothic”, after which they toured a circuit of the building, through the High Renaissance, the 17th century, the 18th century, until they came to the display of French Impressionists bringing them back to the front entrance.
 Charles Saumarez Smith, “Narratives of Display at the National Gallery, London” in Art History, Vol. 30, no. 4, 2007, 611-627, 613. As CSS points out, Hendy was trying to balance a conventional history of art on the walls with a “modernist aesthetic”, a hang reflecting the times rather than just the development of national schools. This director had been influenced by designs made by Italian architects for the interiors of museums in that country, although some of his ideas like changes of level were frankly impracticable and would raise disability issues today. Hendy’s attitude towards hanging also resulted in a debate in the House of Lords in 1954, where disapproval was expressed at “window dressing” in the N.G. As CSS speculates, Hendy may have brought American ideas about hanging back from his tenure at Boston MFA; the tendency in America was to show masterpieces in isolation. Hendy seems to have been in tune with wariness towards “past greatness”, presenting the past without compromising the present.
 Fitzwilliam Museum founded in 1816, with the bequest to Cambridge University by Richard, 7th Viscount Fitzwilliam, of his paintings, works on paper, books and musical material.
 Giles Waterfield, “Art Galleries and the Public: A Survey of Three Centuries,” Art Treasures of England, 45. Such a dense hang was memorably re-created by Waterfield and Verdi in this mammoth exhibition at the R.A.
 Christopher Ridgway, “Country House Collections: What Do They Mean Today?” in Attingham conference proceedings.
 Art Treasures of England, no. 28. Jaffé was Director of the Fitzwilliam 1973-90. In 1960 Jaffé persuaded Cambridge to introduce art history as a subject in its own right.
 Art Treasures of England, no. 5. F left 144 paintings most of them from the Netherlands.